Section 91 Indian Evidence Act, 1872: Evidence of terms of contracts, grants and other dispositions of property reduced to form of documents.
Evidence of terms of contracts, grants and other dispositions of property reduced to form of documents.—When the terms of a contract, or of a grant, or of any other disposition of property, have been reduced to the form of a document, and in all cases in which any matter is required by law to be reduced to the form of a document, no evidence1 shall be given in proof of the terms of such contract, grant or other disposition of property, or of such matter, except the document itself, or secondary evidence of its contents in cases in which secondary evidence is admissible under the provisions hereinbefore contained.—When the terms of a contract, or of a grant, or of any other disposition of property, have been reduced to the form of a document, and in all cases in which any matter is required by law to be reduced to the form of a document, no evidence2 shall be given in proof of the terms of such contract, grant or other disposition of property, or of such matter, except the document itself, or secondary evidence of its contents in cases in which secondary evidence is admissible under the provisions hereinbefore contained.” Exception 1.—When a public officer is required by law to be appointed in writing, and when it is shown that any particular person has acted as such officer, the writing by which he is appointed need not be proved. Exception 2.—Wills 2[admitted to probate in 3[India]] may be proved by the probate. Explanation 1.—This section applies equally to cases in which the contracts, grants or dispositions of property referred to are contained in one document, and to cases in which they are contained in more documents than one. Explanation. 2.—Where there are more originals than one, one original only need be proved. Explanation 3.—The statement, in any document whatever, of a fact other than the facts referred to in this section, shall not preclude the admission of oral evidence as to the same fact. Illustrations
(a) If a contract be contained in several letters, all the letters in which it is contained must be proved.
(b) If a contract is contained in a bill of exchange, the bill of exchange must be proved.
(c) If a bill of exchange is drawn in a set of three, one only need be proved.
(d) A contracts, in writing, with B, for the delivery of indigo upon certain terms. The contract mentions the fact that B had paid A the price of other indigo contracted for verbally on another occasion. Oral evidence is offered that no payment was made for the other indigo. The evidence is admissible.
(e) A gives B receipt for money paid by B. Oral evidence is offered of the payment. The evidence is admissible.
Verma Law Associates is an offspring of Advocate Anoop Verma and other experienced Advocates/Lawyers.
Advocate Anoop Verma has been advising individuals, corporates, businesses on a variety of legal issues since his call to the Punjab & Haryana Bar Council.
After gaining years of experience working for law firms, Advocate Anoop Verma opened his own Law firm “Verma Law Associates” where he is able to provide quality legal services at reasonable rates.
During his career, he has been involved in some of the most complicated and high profile cases, and participated in several ground-breaking litigation cases. Having been trained and mentored by some of best lawyers, he brings a unique perspective and varied experience to his practice.
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