Section 63 Indian Evidence Act, 1872: Secondary evidence.

Section 63 Indian Evidence Act, 1872: Secondary evidence.

Secondary evidence.—Secondary evidence means and includes—
(1) Certified copies given under the provisions hereinafter contained1;1;”
(2) Copies made from the original by mechanical processes which in themselves insure the accuracy of the copy, and copies compared with such copies;
(3) Copies made from or compared with the original;
(4) Counterparts of documents as against the parties who did not execute them;
(5) Oral accounts of the contents of a document given by some person who has himself seen it. Illustrations
(a) A photograph of an original is secondary evidence of its contents, though the two have not been compared, if it is proved that the thing photographed was the original.
(b) A copy compared with a copy of a letter made by a copying machine is secondary evidence of the contents of the letter, if it is shown that the copy made by the copying machine was made from the original.
(c) A copy transcribed from a copy, but afterwards compared with the original, is secondary evidence; but the copy not so compared is not secondary evidence of the original, although the copy from which it was transcribed was compared with the original.
(d) Neither an oral account of a copy compared with the original, nor an oral account of a photograph or machine-copy of the original, is secondary evidence of the original. COMMENTS Admissibility Application moved for permission to lead secondary evidence based on ground of loss of document. Presence of document proved from the facts pleaded – Allowing secondary evidence not illegal; Sobha Rani v. Ravikumar, AIR 1999 P&H 21. Tape-recorded statements are admissible in evidence; K.S. Mohan v. Sandhya Mohan, AIR 1993 Mad 59. Certified copies of money lender’s licences are admissible in evidence; K. Shivalingaiah v. B.V. Chandrashekara Gowda, AIR 1993 Kant 29.


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Verma Law Associates is an offspring of Advocate Anoop Verma and other experienced Advocates/Lawyers.

Advocate Anoop Verma has been advising individuals, corporates, businesses on a variety of legal issues since his call to the Punjab & Haryana Bar Council.

After gaining years of experience working for law firms, Advocate Anoop Verma opened his own Law firm “Verma Law Associates” where he is able to provide quality legal services at reasonable rates.

During his career, he has been involved in some of the most complicated and high profile cases, and participated in several ground-breaking litigation cases. Having been trained and mentored by some of best lawyers, he brings a unique perspective and varied experience to his practice.

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Advocate Anoop Verma

Punjab & Haryana High Court Chandigarh, DRT Chandigarh



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